In December of 1959, the eminent physicist Richard Feynman (1965 Physics Nobel Prize) described the future in a groundbreaking talk entitled “Plenty of Room at the Bottom ” about the physical possibilities for “making, manipulating, visualizing and controlling things on a small scale,” and imaging that in decades to come, it might be possible to arrange atoms “ the way we want.”
“Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopaedia Brittanica on the head of a pin? ” “..... and there is no question that there is enough room on the head of a pin to put all of the Encyclopaedia Brittanica.”
Nanoscience refers to the science and manipulation of chemical and biological structures with dimensions in the range from 1-100 nanometers.
Nanoscience building blocks may consist of anywhere from a few hundred atoms to millions of atoms. On this scale, new properties (electrical, mechanical, optical, chemical, and biological) that are fundamentally different from bulk or molecular properties can emerge.
Nanoscience is about creating new chemical and biological nanostructures, uncovering and understanding their novel properties, and ultimately about learning how to organize these new nanostructures into larger and more complex functional structures and devices.
Nanoscience is a new way of thinking about building up complex materials and devices by exquisite control of the functionality of matter and its assembly at the nanometer-length scale.
Nanoscience inherently bridges disciplinary boundaries. The "nano" length scale requires the involvement of chemical concepts at the atomic and molecular level.
Nanotechnology is the control and structuring of matter at the nanoscale, at the atomic and molecular level in the size range of about 1 to 100 nm, in order to create materials, devices, and systems with fundamentally new properties and functions due to their small structure.
Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology in 1974. It wasn't until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could "see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.
The term "nanotechnology" was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems.